Tuesday, June 18, 2019

Adam John Chisholm, Jacobite Rebellion

About Adam John Chisholm

Notes: Individual: Children 1. William CHISOLM b: 1725 in Hanover County, Virginia 2. David CHISHOLME b: 1728 in Hanover County, Virginia 3. Walter CHISHOLME b: 19 MAR 1732/33 in Hanover County, Virginia 4. Daughter CHISHOLME b: ABT. 1730 Taken from the book "THE CHISZ" A HISTORY OF THE CHISHOLME/CHISM FAMILY by John D. Chism, Jr. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 89-833324. Copyright 1989. Adam Chisholme was born circa 1695 in Scotland. The year of his birth is derived from the fact that he was at least eighteen to twenty years of age at the time he fought in the battle, the "Fifteen", of 1715, between England and Scotland. He married several years after arriving in Virginia, sometime between 1723-1725. The long period between his arrival and marriage will be explained. He produced at least four children, and lived for more than sixty years. He was still alive as of August 12, 1756. The years between 1600 and 1750 were years of much contestation between England and Scotland even though it was a period of reasonable peace. The question as to who would control the crown died a hard death. As a result of Scotland's desire to control the crown through the Stuart Monarchy there resulted at least two battles, one in 1715 and one in 1745. After the skirmish in 1715 England quickly recognized that the issue was not settled and very likely would not be resolved soon. In order to try and gain an advantage should the question arise in another confrontation, England quickly moved to seize an opportunity. Immediately after the skirmish of 1715 England gathered together a large number of the supporters of "The Old Pretender", a descendant of King James II and the Stuart family. Referring to them as "Jacobites" she labeled them "trouble makers" and deported them as prisoners to the "dumping grounds", the colonies in America and the Caribbean Islands. During the skirmish of "The Fifteen", 1715, a large rebel force under the command of Thomas Forster gathered at Preston, Lancashire on November 9, 1715. The government forces advanced upon the town, at it was assaulted. On November 14, 1715, the rebel commander surrendered his army to the King's forces. Captured in that rebellion was 637 Scottish rebels. Starting the following spring 639 Jacobite rebel prisoners were transported to the American Colonies and the Caribbean Islands. They were forced into an indenture, "white slavery", for a seven year period. Those who had not voluntarily accepted an indenture before leaving England was forced into one before allowed to leave ship in the colonies. This was and edit from the Crown and all Colonial Governors were so informed. This was the first and largest group of Scottish citizen to enter the colonies. They would be joined later by still another group after the battle in 1745, the Battle Culloden. Still others followed them for either political or economic reasons. In the "National Genealogical Society Quarterly" is a listing of the 639 Jacobite rebels as compiled by Clifford Neal Smith. He not only list those men but he gave the names of the ships on which they traveled. The following is the listing by Mr. Smith of the ships, their Captains, and destinations: "Anne", Capt. Robert Wallace, bound for Virginia, exited Liverpool 31 July 1716 with 18 prisoners. "Africa", Richard Cropper, master, bound for Barbados exited Liverpool 15, July 1716 with 1 prisoner. "Elizabeth and Anne", commander Edward Trafford, bound for Virginia and Jamaica exited Liverpool 28 July 1716 with 126 prisoners. "Friendship", Capt. Michael Mankin, bound for Maryland or Virginia exited Liverpool 24 May 1716 with 80 prisoners. "Godspeed" (for Goodspeed), Capt. Arthur Smith, bound for Virginia (but left prisoners in Maryland) exited Liverpool 28 July 1716 with 54 prisoners on one manifest and 2 additional on another manifest. "Hockenhill", Capt. Hockenhill Short, bound for St. Christophers, Leeward Islands, date not given with 30 prisoners. "Susannah", Capt. Thomas Bromhall, bound for South Carolina exited Liverpool 7 May 1716 with 101prisoners on the manifest, although receipted for 104. "Scipio", commander's name and destination not given, exited Liverpool 30 March 1716 with 95 prisoners. "Two Brothers", Capt. Edward Rathbon, bound for Jamaica exited Liverpool 26 April 1716 with 47 prisoners. "Wakefield", Capt. Thomas Beck, bound for South Carolina exited Liverpool 21 April 1716 with 81 prisoners. One immediately notices that all these prisoners were sent to the southern colonies with most being sent to Virginia, South Carolina and the islands. (Keep in mind that Georgia was not yet settled. It was 1732 before King George granted a 21 year charter to settle the Georgia Colony.) For this there was a special reason. The southern colonies were in desperate need of white settlers especially North Carolina and South Carolina. (North Carolina had just become an independent colony. In 1712 she was divided from South Carolina). In South Carolina the black population far outnumbered the white. Also, the population had been ravaged by the Indian wars. Virginia was not in much better condition. As soon as the word was out that the prisoners were being deported the southern colonies started a campaign to acquire as many of these prisoners as possible. They almost begged for these men. On the American side of the Atlantic, the issues and question between England and Scotland was of very little consequence. In America, there was no stigma associated with those men who were having to leave as a result of this bitter issue. As a matter of fact, the Governor of Virginia, Alexander Spotswood, extended an open arms invitation to those men. As a matter of fact, he personally advised some of those men to come to America and specifically Virginia. One was indentured to him and he wrote letters of petition on behalf of others. To be departed under such conditions carried no disgrace with him. The following is a partial listing of a group of young men who were deported and who arrived in the Virginia Colony in late 1716: Wm. Dunn, Adam Chisholm, Wm Mackelway, Robert Copland, John Petillo (Patillo), George Dickenson, John Kennedy, John Johnson, John Michy (Michea), Robert Duncan, Charles Henderson, John Abercombie, John Peter and James Peter. ("the Virginia Calendar of State Papers", Vol. 1, p. 185). Adam Chisholm, Jacobite prisoner. Transported to Virginia on Elizabeth and Anne, exited Liverpool, 28 June 1716. (S.P./C; S. N. Q8, iv, 187). Note the above date of June 28, 1716 disagrees with Mr. Smith's date of July 28, 1716. One will not argue over a month if Adam Chisholme doesn't. Since the Elizabeth and Anne's destination was listed as Jamaica and Virginia its route is known. The normal route to the colonies via Jamaica was south from Liverpool, by the Mediterranean, and down along the coast of North Africa. From Africa, an arching course was set for the Caribbean Islands and Jamaica t6hen north to the colonial port at Charleston, South Carolina. The ship would then continue up the coast to Virginia. This route kept the ships close to a land mass and many good ports of call in case of an emergency or should supplies be needed. This route was established after the Carolina Colony was settled and became the predominate trade route for southern colonies. This route took approximately three months and would have had Adam Chisholm arriving in Virginia sometime in October of 1716, weather permitting. After arriving in Virginia, it is uncertain as to who acquired Adam's indenture. It, however, is assumed to be Mr. William Morris, the man for whom he witnessed a will and was beneficiary of that will in 1745. He and Mr. Morris had to have had a special relationship for him to benefit from Mr. Morris' estate. Mr. Morris lived in Hanover County and it was there that Adam lived. It was here that he married, his children were born, and where he remained, from all evidences, for the remainder of his life. If Mr. Morris did not acquire Adam's indenture then it was most definitely someone of "means" and influence. Many of the Jacobite prisoners' indentures were bought by such men. Adam was believed to be among those fortunate prisoners. For him to succeed as he did, surely he had this sort of help. He and his sons were men of "means". They were well educated and married into families of means. All of Adam's sons married women who were educated. They were even able to educate all their children male and female. After Adam and his sons were first established, the question arose: Why did he wait so long after arriving before he married? From all indications he never married until about 1725 for his children were not born until 1725-1732. William was born about 1725-28 and Walter, the youngest, was born March 19, 1732. After it was proven that he was in fact indentured, then the question was answered. He arrived in Virginia in late 1716. He had to work off a seven year indenture, sentence. His indenture would have been served in the latter part of 1723. Thus his marriage about 1725. Adam Chisholme and his children and grandchildren are known to have lived in Hanover, Louisa, Loudoun, Albemarle, Lunenburg, Halifax, Goochland, Chesterfield and Charlotte Counties of Virginia. They clustered in the central part of the state and around Richmond, They did not particularly like the frontier of Virginia as did a different clan of "Chesham/Chishams". Another characteristic of Adam and his sons is that while they may not have been wealthy they by no means were poor. They were well educated even the females. All of Adam's daughters-in-law were educated. They could read and write. So could his granddaughters as we will see later. This is not necessarily so with the other family lines. This fact alone puts a marked distinction between these two families of Virginia during this early period. Source: http://boards.ancestry.com/surnames.chisholm/478.1.1.1/mb.ashx

A "Jacobite Prisoner", deported, 28 Jun 1716 to the Virginia Colony. Fascinating research as abstracted by John Chism in his book, "The Chisz" Reference: http://www.highlanderweb.co.uk/culloden/jacobite.htm The Rise & Fall of the Jacobite Rebellion By Mark Monaghan. The word Jacobite comes from the Jacob's, or James' from the Royal House of Stuart. The followers of the James' (James V through to VII) were therefore known as Jacobites. The situation was like this: England had been ruled by Protestant Queen Elizabeth I, she was succeeded by James I of England (James VI of Scotland) *see the union of the crowns*. Catholic and Protestant divide not only in England but also in Scotland, Ireland and to a lesser degree France and Germany was the worst it had ever been. Support within all these countries for one family over another was across the board. Protestant support in Scotland and England was heavier than that of the Catholics. Both countries were under the rule of the Stuarts and this did not run well with the protestant parliament of the more powerful English. The Stuarts were eventually exiled and forced to retire to France due to the support of the Act of Union in 1707 which basically forced Scotland to accept a situation that was not in their favour. Queen Anne died without an heir and the Act of Union, amongst other things, allowed the German House of Hanover to take the crown. This was something that the English desperately wanted, as it was regarded then that Catholicism was closer to evil than good. For 40 years the Stuarts in France, the legitimate Blood line, descended from Scottish blood, had been stating their claims to the throne's of both Scotland and England and Ireland. But religion and politics were one, and the Stuarts were out. With the Act of Union in place, and the Hanovarian head placed beneath the crown, England was happy and the rest just had to fall in line. James VIII (the old pretender) had a lot of support from within France, Ireland, Scotland and even England. But he never took it upon himself to really do anything about it. When his son was born, hopes for a new Stuart king fueled the passions of already unhappy followers. Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) started to realise by the age of 13 that he could fulfill a dream and place his head under the crown and regain the throne that was rightfully theirs in the first place, or so he thought. And many agreed. Now in 23 years old, and with the blessing of his father and the support of a French invasion force he decided to make his claim and lead the House of Stuart back to the crown. He travelled to Scotland to rally support but along the way there was a change of heart from the French support and they left him unsupported. Knowing that there was little he could do without military might, he of course did very little, but in rallying support from the Scots, Irish and English he hoped to provoke the French into taking the opportunity which they almost had done just before. When he arrived in the Highlands, songs, poems and stories that the Prince was here gained momentum and his army of faithful Highlanders began to emerge. Men, women and children rallied behind his standard and shock waves began to make it's way to London. Some supported him by taking the call to arms, and others supported the Stuart claim by simply casting a blind eye and neither supporting him or opposing him, and in sense by doing nothing they did in fact help him dramatically. With a fairly healthy army of Highlanders, Charles made his way south to Edinburgh which he entered with no opposition. He did however meet his first opponent south of Edinburgh in Prestonpans Pans, where he swiftly defeated Cove's army of 4,000 men. Celebration was in order and a great party was underway at Hollyrood House in Edinburgh. London quivered at the thought of the Highlanders on the march again, and it seemed like Charles was doing exactly what he had threatened to do. Scotland was theirs now, and it would be easy to stay and keep Scotland, under the Stuarts theirs. Charles disagreed and knew that his only option was to take England or Nothing. It may have been easy to march through Scotland, but he knew that maybe not now, but eventually the English would mass a mighty army and push him back out. His only choice was to move south. News spread to London and England feared that at any moment an invasion force from France would indeed take them from the South. The English king, George II made his plans and rallied his own army together which was made up of his own British troops, Dutch troops, German support (remember they were Hanovarians) and mercenaries from all over. Amongst those put in charge were General Wade, and William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. In order to dampen the fears that their southern subjects may have had regarding French invasion and the already marching Jacobite Rebels, they set the propaganda machine in place. The most prominent and telling statement that was made at this time was the insertion of a new verse in the British National Anthem, The verse is as follows sung to the tune of God save the Queen: God grant that Marshal Wade, May by thy Mighty aid, Victory bring, May he sedition hush, And like a torrent rush, Rebellious Scots to crush, God save the King. Meanwhile Charles and his army had now been in England for 26 days and were in Derby, 120 miles from London. It was guessed by Cumberland that the Prince would have actually marched down through Wales in order to pick up more support and to favour the higher ground. He was wrong. When news arrived that Charles was in Derby while Wade was far off in Wales, London feared the worst. This was the closest the Charles would ever get to actually achieving his dream. If it were not for the next card which was about to be played, The House of Stuart could have moved forces into London with only a small London militia as opposition. Cumberland sent a spy to the Highlanders camp with news that a force of 30,000 men were heading straight for them. Little did Charles know that this news was in fact a lie, but he took it for gospel and on advice from his council of supporters they decided that they should return home. At this time his troops had been on the move for weeks. Far from home and far from supplies: although there was no opposition there was also no support, and so supplies were in demand. Winter was upon them and all were in favour of a return home and the wait for spring. And this is what they did. But on their long march back to Scotland they didn't realise that this move gave Cumberland the chance to move across the country and follow on behind them. 6th of September - Black Friday. Charles made the retreat with his army of just over 5,000 and behind him an army of 30,000 which he believed awaited him if he should decide to change his mind. Even he knew that this was his only real choice given the information at hand. Making his way to Stirling his men still had it within them to take on the English at Falkirk and beat what opposition there was there. However it left his men without ammunition and sapped what little strength they had left. In the bleak cold of winter his army made camp at Stirling and took respite there for 5 weeks while the Prince moved on to Glasgow. Time passed and they slowly made their way through the hills back home to the Highlands. They had barely made camp in Inverness when news arrived that Cumberland had made camp in Nairn: about 15 miles away. Exhausted, freezing, starving, out of supplies and ammunition some of his army went home to their families and some stayed. Charles thought he would take the upper hand and strike first. He sent 1,500 of his best troops to make a night march on Cumberlands camp. In the morning they returned after having no success and later that morning on April 16th 1746 Cumberlands army marched onto the moors at Culloden and faced his foe. Just over 4,000 Jacobite supporters stood in the snow driven moors in mid morning, some had been up all night after their night march, all were starving, tired and worse for wear. A mixture of Clans, Irish and men from the ages of 51 years to as young as 13 stood in front of a veteran force of over 9,000 well supplied infantry and cavalry. Cumberlands troops were made up of English veterans fresh from Europe and over 4,000 Scots: more Scots were facing Charles than were standing next to him. For many though it was more a case of Clan revenge than a fight for a crown. One example is the Chisholms. On both sides Clansman faced Clansman - Chisholm faced Chisholm - and even brother faced brother. The Duke's army had canon and riffle-musket. Each man equipped with enough ammunition for at least 24 rounds. On the Prince's side they were armed with musket-pistols - and no ammunition. He too had 3lb canons - but supplied with 4lb shot. It was back to the old ways - The Highland Charge. A little after 12:30 that afternoon the Princes side fired what canon they had and waited for the return volley - which came swiftly. His troops were cut down in the dozen by the onslaught of Cumberlands artillery. Disemboweled by the flying balls of 4lb steel, arms legs and heads were scattered amongst the bunched up and freezing Jacobites. It all lasted for minutes and when the smoke cleared all that was left to do was to run or charge - the Jacobites outnumbered by at least 2 to 1 Charged on the right flank of Cumberlands lines. For a brief spell the Duke's troops on the right were scattered, but soon closed ranks on the charging Highlanders and began the massacre, in turn scattering the Highlanders across 'Cumberlands Bloody Killing Field'. By 1:00, only 30 minutes later it was all over and those Highlanders, who could, ran for cover and back to their homes. By Cumberlands own estimate, some 2,000 Highlanders lay dead on Culloden Moor. These figures have never been seriously challenged and neither has the figure of 300 dead and injured from his side. A more exact figure has been put forward of 1,500 Highlanders but still only 300 of the Dukes men. The memories of Culloden still run deep in the blood of Highlanders the world over because this battle was not the end - it was just the beginning! Cumberland gave orders for "No Quarter Given": in other words 'none shall live'. His army marched on and killed every wounded Higlander left on the field - and then made his way to Inverness to carry on the fight. Raiding homes looking for Jacobites, all were labeled as one and swiftly put either to the end of a musket - bayonet - hangmans rope or burnt alive in their homes. Women, children, old and young, his orders were "No Quarter Given" - and none was. The slaughter did not end their on that day, and this is the significance of the Jacobite's in Scottish history: particularly Highland history. For months his army moved around the Highlands clearing out any threat once and for all that Highlander should ever pick up a Broadsword against England. It can be quoted from English parliament in reply to Cumberlands reports that they sent message saying "It will be no great mischief if all should fall". the support for Cumberlands ethnic cleansing was total. Some 500 years before Culloden it is also documented that King Edward (Longshanks) I of England said "The trouble with Scotland is that it is full of Scots". Famous words that were spoken not only by Longshanks, but by every conquering Englishman who set foot on Scottish soil. It was now 1746, and these same words were again being echoed by these gentlemen, albeit in a different sentence, but basically saying the same thing. 5 months passed and it was decided that the hunt for the Jacobites, (which by this time there were more than likely none left as well as every other Highlander who wasn't even there), should be calmed down and this is when the Prince made his escape back to France. In London they celebrated the defeat of the Highland people once and for all, and the German composer Handel wrote one of his most famous works 'See the conquering hero come' - referring to The Duke of Cumberland. The Highland people were wiped out. Over the coming years they were cleared out of their homes to make way for their lands to be used for profitable sheep farming. For 4 generations the Highlanders were scattered to the corners of the world - Europe, India, and the New World, 'America'. Sold as slaves they worked on the lands in the southern parts of America, and one account even tells us that in Barbados a ship load of Highlanders were traded for 10 tones of Sugar. Their culture was demolished, their native language - Gaelic - was banned and marked as a hanging offence if spoken, the wearing of tartan was also made a hanging offence and even the Bible was not allowed to be learnt in their own language, never mind written. These times are known to us who are still here as the 'Highland Clearances'. English schools were put in place and the process of conversion began. Finally the English dream of a conquered Scotland was theirs. Now in the year 1996, modern song writing depicts a Highland scene which is not far removed from the days 250 years ago: Scottish Band 'Capercaillie' - a verse from their 1995 hit 'Waiting for the wheel to turn' Here come the clearances my friend, Sadly our history is coming to life again, We feel the breeze of the storm to come, And up and down this coast, We're waiting for the wheel to turn. I am a Highland born and bred 26 year old. In my school days I was taught English history - William the Conqueror - The Romans - King Arthur - Even Robin Hood. I was taught in English and had the choice of languages between French and Gaelic. I and 22 other class mates chose Gaelic - there were over 300 in my class. Chisholm Name Meaning and History Scottish: habitational name from Chisholme near Hawick in southern Scotland, which derives its name from Old English c¯se, cese ‘cheese’ (Latin caseus) + holm ‘piece of dry land in a fen’ and refers to a waterside meadow good for dairy farming and hence for producing cheeses. In the 14th century members of this family migrated to the Highlands, settling in Strathglass, where their name was Gaelicized as Siosal. http://www.surnamedb.com/surname.aspx?name=chisholm Surname: Chisholm This famous Scottish clan surname, which six hundred years after its creation, gave its name to the Chisholm Trail and the opening up of the American West, is locational. It derives from the lands of Chisholm, in the parish of Roberton, in the county of Roxburgh. Early Chisholm (the name is also recorded as Chisholme) name holders formed part of the famous Scottish raiders called ' The Border Reivers', who ranged as far south in England as the city of York. For reason unclear, over the centuries some of the 'Chisholms' moved north in Scotland, and in effect two separate clans developed, although there seems to have been little to choose between them for their general contempt for the law. The Gaelic form of the name is 'Siosal', and collectively the clan is called 'An Siosalach'. Amongst the early name holders was Robert de Chesholme, who was sherrif of Inverness in 1359, and also custodian of the castle of Vrchard. In 1499 certain persons (un-named) were executed for the killing of one 'Harrald de Schlescheme', of Strathglas, although the circumstances are far from clear. Walter Chisholm of that Ilk was the Bailie of Melrose in 1605, and the Chisholms of Cromlix went against all the clan tradition by being bishops of Dunblane in the 16th century. The clan chief is known as 'The Chisholm', and the coat of arms is a wild boars head in gold, on a red field. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John de Cheshelme, which was dated 1254, the papal records of Pope Alexander 1V, during the reign of King Alexander 111 of Scotland, 1249 - 1286. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. Source: http://www.thehennesseefamily.com/getperson.php?personID=I26299&tree=hennessee Sources 1.[S4160] "The Chisz, A History of the Chisholme/Chism Family",by John D. Chism, Jr.,, p. 6. 2.[S45292] http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/c/h/i/Michael-Chism/WEBSITE-0001/UHP-0586.html.
Source: Geni